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Food Safety

Food Safety


  • Food Borne Illness
  • Microbiology Summary Sheet
  • Potentially Hazardous Food
  • Critical Control Point
  • Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
  • PHF Meets Temperature Requirements
  • Equipment to Maintain Product Temperature
  • Food Protection From Contamination
  • Personnel

  • Personnel with Infections Restricted
  • Hands Washed and Clean
  • Good Hygienic Practices
  • Clean Clothes, Hair Restraints, Jewerly
  • Equipment
    & Utensils

  • Dishwashing Facilities
  • Thermometers, Chemical Test Kits, Gauges Provided and Conspicuous
  • All Surfaces Constructed, Maintained and Clean
  • Wiping Cloths, Clean, Stored, Restricted and Labeled
  • Single Service Articles Properly Stored, Dispensed and Used
  • In Use, Food Dispensing Utensils Properly Stored
  • Cross Contamination - Equipment

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    Food Safety - General

    Food Borne Illness

    Food borne illness continues to be a major public health problem. Applying the basic principles of food protection can reduce the incidence of such illness. The consistent practice of which requires better understanding on the part of owners, operators, managers, and other food service employees. This requires maximum cooperation between public health agencies and the food service industry.

    The CDC (U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention) has found that the following six things can lead to food borne illnesses:
    1. Using contaminated raw foods and ingredients;
    2. Preparing food too far ahead of service;
    3. Using improper cooling and cold holding practices;
    4. Using improper hot holding practices;
    5. Using improper reheating practices; and
    6. Poor personal hygiene or an infected food handler preparing food.

    Web Resources

    1. For additional food safety information about meat, poultry, or egg products, call the toll-free USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline at 1 (800) 535-4555. The Hotline is staffed by food safety experts weekdays from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Eastern time. Food safety recordings can be heard 24 hours a day using a touch-tone phone.
    2. Food SafetyFoodborne Illness: What Consumers need to know.
    3. Cleaning and Sanitizing Utensils and Equipment
    4. Cooling Foods Properly
    5. Holding Temperatures For Safe Food Handling
    6. Proper Ways to Thaw Foods
    7. Guidelines for Final Cooking Temperatures of Potentially Hazardous Foods
    8. Hand Washing
    9. Cross Contamination
    10. Food Irradiation Fact Sheet
    12. Safe Food Handling
    13. Using a Thermometer
    14. Warm Weather Food Safety Tips
    15. Cold Storage Chart
    16. For Kids, Teens, & Educators
    17. Standard Operating Procedures for Food Service Operation

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    Food Safety - General

    Microbiology Summary Sheet

    Foodborne Illiness
    Infection or Intoxication Oxygen Requirement Foods Implicated Prevention
    Bacillus cereusIntoxicationFacultiveVegatables/meat dishes, rice, grains.Cool, Hot Hold, Rapid Reheat
    Clostridium botulisumIntoxicationAnaerobicLow Acid foods, meat, poultry, seafood products, canned vegatables, potatoes (bakes & salad), onions, butter, flavored oils.Heat processing, Cool. Reheat. Use Approved Sources.
    Staphylococcns sureusIntoxicationFacultiveCooked high protien foods, meat, meat and egg salads, cream pastry.Cools store. Cool. Prevent cross contamination. Toxin survives cook, cool, freeze, nitrites.
    E. Coli 0157.H7Toxin Medicated InfectionFacultiveRaw ground beef, pork, poultry, lamb.Cook 155F. Prevent cross contamination. Proper personal hygiene. Safe food supply.
    Campylobacter jojuniInfectionPerfer low oxygenRaw Milk, poulty, eqqs, contaminated water.Cook 165F. Prevent cross contamination. Proper persona hygiene.
    Listeria monocylogenesInfectionFacultiveRaw Milk, soft cheese, raw vegatables, raw & cooked smoked fish, raw fermented sausages.Cook 155F. Prevent cross contamination. Use pasturized products.
    SalmonellaInfectionFacultiveRaw meats, specially poultry & eggs, dairy products, cream-filled desserts, and foods without futher cooking.Cook 165F. Prevent cross contamination.
    Shigella DysenteryInfectionFacultivesalad, noodle salad, meat salads, raw vegatable salad, dairy products, poultry.Prevent cross contamination. Proper personal hygiene. Safe food supply.
    AnisakiasisParasiteFacultiveRaw FishCook 145F. Prevent cross contamination. Safe food supply.
    Do not eat raw fish.
    Trichinella spiralisParasiteFacultivecooked meats, game animalsCook 155F. Prevent cross contamination. Safe food supply.
    Hapititas AViral InfectionFacultiveContaminated water, ready to eat foods, or drug related.Prevent cross contamination or cross-connection. Proper personal hygiene & avoid cariers and fecal oral contamination. Immunizations.
    CiquateraToxinFacultiveTropical and large reef fish.Cook 145F. Prevent cross contamination. Safe food supply.

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    Food Safety - General

    Potentially Hazardous Food (PHF)

    Potentially Hazardous Food (PHF) means any food that consists in whole or in part of milk or milk products, eggs, meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, edible crustacean, or other ingredients, including synthetic ingredients, and which is in a form capable of supporting rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms. Most potentially hazardous foods have three general properties.
    1. Non-Acidic: Foods that have a pH level of 4.6 or greater. (Low pH < 4.5, High pH> 4.6).
    2. Foods that have a High water activity value under standard conditions of 0.86 or Greater (Low aW , 0.85, High aW >0.86).
    3. High protien/Nutrient Content.

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    Food Safety - General

    Critical Control Point (CCP)
    PHF's Time and Tempartures Guidelines

    TemperatureCCP Description


  • 165F for 15 seconds.
  • Minimum cooking time/temperatures for poultry; stuffed fish, meat, pasta, ratites; stuffing containing meat, fish, poultry or ratites.
  • Minimum reheating temperature (<2 hours).
  • Minimum microwave cooking or reheating, let stand two minutes.
  • Pork, ratites, injected meats.
  • Comminuted (ground) fish, meat, game animals (commercially raised and/or inspected under approved programs.
  • 155F

  • 155F for 15 seconds.
  • Minimum cooking time/temperatures for eggs that are not broken and prepared for a consumer's order and immediate service (buffet lines).
  • Pork, ratites, injected meats.
  • Comminuted (ground) fish, meat, game animals (commercially raised and/or inspected under approved programs.
  • 145F

  • 145F for 15 seconds.
  • Minimum cooking time/temperature for roast beef and corned beef.
  • Shell eggs cooked for immediate service (crack egg, cook and serve immediately).
  • Fish, meat and game animals (commercially raised and/or inspected under approved programs).
  • 140F

  • Minimum hot holding temperatures for PHF's.
  • Minimum cooking temperatures for fruits/vegetables cooked for hot holding.
  • 41 - 139F

  • Time and Temperature Danger Zone.
  • Foods held for more than 4 hours at this te,perature, must be destoyed.
  • 120F

  • Minimum wash temperature for manual warewashing and sanitizing.
  • 75F

  • Minimum temperature for manual sanitation with quat chemicals.
  • Quat (150-400 ppm), Clorine (50-100 ppm).
  • 70F

  • Maximum tempareture for portable water used to that PHF's.
  • 2 hours to 70F and 4 hours to 40F.
  • 40F

  • Cold holding temperature for PHF's.
  • 32F

  • Temperature for Ice methold thermometer calibration.
  • 0F

  • Freezer Temperature.

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    Food Safety - General

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)

    Each of these principles must be backed by sound scientific knowledge (ie. published microbiological studies on time and temperature factors for controlling foodborne pathogens.
    1. Conduct a hazard analysis. potential hazards associated with a food and measures to control those hazards are identified. The hazard could be biological, such as microbr; chemical, sucjh as a toxin; or physical, such as ground glass or metal fragments.
    2. Identify critical control point (CCP). These points in a food's production (from it's raw state through processing and shipping to consumption by the consumer) at which the potential hazard can be controlled or eliminated. Examples are cooking, cooling, packing, and metal detection.
    3. Establish critical limits for each critical control point. For a cooked food, for example, this might include setting the minimum cooking temperature and time requiored to ensure the elimination of any harmful microbes.
    4. Establish critical contro; point monitoring requirements. Such production might include determining how and by whom cooking time and temperature should be monitored.
    5. Establish corrective action to be taken when monitoring shows that a critical limit has not been met (ie. reprocessing or disposing of food if the minimum cooking temperature is not met.
    6. Establish record keeping procedures to verify that the system is working properly (ie. testing time and temperature recording devices to verify that a cooking unit is working properly..
    7. Establish effective recordkeeping procedures for verifying the HACCP system is working as intended. This would include records of harzards and their control metholds, the monitoring of safety requirements and action taken to correct potential problems.

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    Food Safety - General

    Potentially Hazardous Food Meets Temperature Requirements During Storage, Preparation, Display, or Transportation.

    1. Thawing
      • Properly thawed in refrigerator or refrigeration.
      • Frozen food shall be thawed under cold running water.
      • Frozen food shall be thawed in the watermicrowave oven when part of continuous cooking process.
      • Frozen food shall be thawed during the conventional cooking process.
      • Thawing in hot water or at room temperature is not acceptable.

    2. Preparation
      • Temperature requirements shall be met at all times except during periods of active preparation,
      • e.g., unattended food does not constitute active preparation.

    3. Display
      • Take the temperature of displayed food items for maintenance of Hot and Cold Holding temperature.

    4. Hot Storage
      • Take the temperature of hot stored food items using a calibrated thermometer, at the location of the most probable coldest point (ie. thickest portion.
      • Hot: 140F or above (plus or minus 3F) with the exception of rare roast beef which may be 130F.

    5. Cooling
      • Proper cooling for prepared/cooked foods: 2 hours to 70F and 4 hours or less to 40F.

    6. Cold Storage
      • Cold storage refrigeration must be maintained at 40F or below (plus or minus 3F).
      • Frozen foods shall be 0F or below (plus or minus 3F).

    7. Rapid-Reheat
      • Reheat foods to 165F or hotter, in less than 2 hours.
      • Re-heated food may only be served once.

    8. Transportation
      • Take the temperature of prepared food as it arrives or on the delivery vehicle. Food exempt from temperature requirements must have documentation on file. In the case of food temperature violation: ascertain at best the length of time the product has been at a potentially hazardous temperature.
      • Ask for voluntary destruction of product, witness destruction to dumpster, or poured down drain. If refusal to destroy, contact supervisor for procedure to embargo.

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    Food Safety - General

    Equipment to Maintain Product Temperature

    Adequate equipment shall be provided to heat/cool/hold potentially hazardous foods.

    1. Regrigeration units shall the internal temperature thermometer visable from the front of the equipment.
    2. Correct temperature of food products in the units.
    3. Heat lamps with regular light bulbs are not permitted.
    4. Ultra high temperature (UHT) or ultra pasteurized products, e.g., coffee creamers, do not have to be less than or equal to 45 degrees Fahrenheit.
    5. If equipment does not maintain temperature, transfer food to correctly operating unit.

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    Food Safety - General

    Food Protection From Contamination: During Storage, Preparation, Display, or Transport.

    Foods must be protected at all times from contaminants, however, temperature requirements must be maintained. e.g. foods at 45 degrees Fahrenheit (plus or minus 3 degrees Fahrenheit) must be covered during storage.
      Storage Foods being held during periods of non-preparation:
      • Food on shelves shall be 6 inches or more off floor and covered.
      • Store raw meat on lowest shelf.
      • Store food, equipment and supplies away from drains, sewer lines and toilets.
      • Ice to be consumed shall be seperate from ice used for storage.
      • The ice bin shall not be used for storage.
      • Containers must be of easily cleanable construction.
      • Foil pans or plastic milk containers are not reusable. (Non-smooth surfaces)
      • Fans and fan grills shall be clean.
      • Scoop handles shall not be cracked or broken. End caps on ice cream scoops shall be in place.
      • Raw fruits and vegetables shall be washed with potable water.
      • Sneeze shields shall be in use.
      • Containers shall be covered during transport.
      • Completely wrapped foods in original package do not have to be re-wrapped for transport as long as the original package is not opened.
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    Food Safety - Personnel

    Personnel with Infections Restricted.

    Food service workers must be free of disease in any communicable form, such as open wounds, nasal discharges, productive coughs, or enteric illnesses.
    1. Training and supervision prevents illiness.
    2. Stay away from food prop if coughing or you have cuts or burns that weep.
    3. Diarrhea must be reported due to illiness.
    4. Food handlers shall not have nasal discharges.
    5. Food handlers shall not have open sores.
    6. Gloves or finger cuts must be used to cover bandages.
    7. Employee must be assigned duties which does not allow contact with food products or food prep equipmrnt.

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    Food Safety - Personnel

    Hands Washed and Clean

    1. Hand Washing.
      • All food handlers shall wash their hands (both sides and in between fingers) for at least 20 seconds, in the hand washing sink and dried with a a throw away towel.
      • Daily inspection of hands before before entering food prop area will prevent staphlococcus aureus or strep infection due to cuts or burns.
      • Wash hands before putting on gloves and as often as needed.
      • Employees with multiple duties to change gloves between tasks.
      • Employees with multiple duties must be strongly encouraged to wash hands before serving food.
      • Hand sanitizer may be used in addition to hand washing, but not in lieu of hand washing.
      • E Coli could be found on dirty hands after using the bathroom.
    2. Nails.
      • Nail brushes are used for mails and dry faucet handel with a towel.
      • Food handler's nails shall be clean and neatly trimmed.
      • Anyone with artificial fingernails and handling food must wear gloves.

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    Food Safety - Personnel

    Good Hygienic Practices

    1. Talking.
      • Avoid excessive talking over the food, during preparation.
    2. Smoking.
      • No smoking except in designated areas.
      • Ashtrays with butts may not be in food preparation or service areas. This does not include dry storage room.
      • Employees may not smoke except in a designated smoking area away from food.
    3. Eating.
      • No eating or drinking in food preparation or service areas, except in a closed beverage container (container with a lid or a can of soda and preferably a straw).
      • Employees may not sample food products during food preparation or service. Eating shall be in a designated break room.

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    Food Safety - Personnel

    Clean Clothes, Hair Restraints, Jewerly

    1. Clothes.
      • Outer clothing shall be clean and hair restrained.
      • Aprons and clothing shall be clean.
    2. Hair.
      • Hair shall be clean and restrained.
      • Hair must be effectively managed by the use of hair nets, caps, visors, rubber bands, or hair spray.
      • Hair must be kept pulled back away from face and sholders and not worn loosely.
    3. Jewerly.
      • Employees shall not wear jewelry, excessive rings or dangling bracelets or earrings.
      • No jewerly allowed except smooth weeding ring. Rings can hold reside of contaminated food stuck in the crevices.

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    Food Safety - Equipment & Utensils

    Dishwashing Facilities

    Properly Maintained, Operated, Sanitization Rinse, Clean, Temperature, Concentration, Exposure Time, Equipment Utensils Sanitized.

    The 3-Compartment Sink

  • 3-compartment sink shall have the proper sequencing of wash, rinse and sanitize.
  • Wash, rinse and sanitizing water shall be changed as often as necessary to be acceptably clean and not contaminate the equipment and utensils.
  • The 3-compartment sink must be set up when washing dishes. However, it does now have to be set up if not washing dishes.
  • Procedure: Soak, Wash, Rinse, Sanitize, Dry.


  • Dish Tables or drain boards will be provided for handeling soiled utensils prior to washing, and for cleand utensils folowing sanitizing.
  • Sinks in a 3-compartment sink may be used for soaking when not washing dishes.
  • Equipment may be preflushed or prescraped and , when necessary, presoaked to remove gross food particles adn soil.


  • Sink shall be cleaned before use.
  • In sink one, wash equipment and utensils in clean, hot soapy water.
  • Manual washing at 70 degrees F, using 50 ppm Clorine.
  • No wiping cloths, all cloths must be submerged in sanitation solution, between uses.


  • Rince the equipment free of detergent and abrasives with clean water in the seconf sink.
  • The rinse in a 3 compartment sink can be either submersion or running water in the middle compartment.


  • The food contact surfaces of all equipment and utensils shall be sanitized by: Immersion for at least 1 minute in a clean solution containing 50 ppm of clorine at a temperature of 75 degrees F.
    1. Effective chemical or high temperature sanitization by a process that destroys microorganisms. The establishment is using approved sanitizing agents, such as heat, iodine, quaternary ammonia compounds or chlorine.
    2. Operators using the approved temperature or chemical concentrations for sanitizing. High temperature sanitizing must be adequate to activate a 160 degree Fahrenheit test strip attached to a metal utensil.
    3. Operators are using the correct sanitizing concentration and proper test strips in chemical sanitizing dishwashers and 3 compartment sinks. Proper concentrations of sanitizers for dishwashing are:
      • Iodine 12.5 ppm.
      • Chlorine 50 ppm.
      • Quat 200 ppm.
    4. In-place cleaning concentration is up to twice the above concentration.
      • Iodine 25 ppm.
      • Chlorine 100 ppm.
      • Quat 400 ppm.
    5. Use unscented bleach only when using bleach for a chlorine sanitizer.


  • Air Dry items upside down, on the drain board or on rack above the drain board.

    Test Kits

  • A Test kit or other device that accurately measures the ppm concentration of the solution shall be provided and used.

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    Food Safety - Equipment & Utensils

    Thermometers, Chemical Test Kits, Gauges Provided and Conspicuous.

    Monitoring equipment shall be provided to ensure food protection, sanitizing, and cleaning.
    1. Employees must have metal stem thermometers, or equipment thermometers for
    2. monitoring food and equipment within a range of 0-220 degrees Fahrenheit.
    3. Approved chemical test kit shall be provided.
    4. Gauges must be provided on dish machines to monitor temperature and pressure.
    5. Chlorine test strips shall register at least 50-200 ppm for chlorine sanitizer.
    6. Quat test strips shall read at least 200-300 ppm.
    7. Iodine test strips shall read at least 12.5-25 ppm.
    8. Make sure thermometers are easily seen, readable and accurate.

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    Food Safety - Equipment & Utensils

    All Surfaces: Constructed, Maintained and Clean.

  • Food Contact Surfaces: Surfaces of equipment and utensils with which food normally comes in contact with, and those surfaces from which food may drain, drip, or splash back onto, shall be kept clean.
  • No-Food contact surfaces to be smooth, easily cleanable, use light color high gloss epoxy paint.
  • Storage rooms, Refrigerators and Walk-ins: Repair shelves, walls and gaskets, surfaces of equipment should be maintained and clean.
  • Reach-In freezer, repair rusty shelves and replace door gaskets.
    1. Equipment shall be smooth, non-absorbent, easily cleanable, free of cracks, chips, pits, seams and other imperfections. Replace or repair equipment as needed.
    2. Cutting boards with deep cracks, crevices or mold on the surface should be discarded or if acrylic - re-planning required.
    3. Soda nozzles shall be kept free of mold.
    4. Ceilings in microwave ovens shall be kept clean.
    5. Wood surfaces must be painted or sealed.
    6. Contact paper or Aluminum foil are not approved for lining or covering shelves or other areas.
    7. Proper storage shall be provided for clean utensils.
    8. Maintain and clean tops of refrigerators, exhaust fans, in between fryers, fan covers in walk-ins, drains in walk-ins, or range hoods.
    9. Glasses may be stored on bar mats. Do not use towels under glasses.
    10. Use basting brushes without metal bands.
    11. Food baskets must be lined or easily cleanable.

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    Food Safety - Equipment & Utensils

    Wiping Cloths: Clean, Stored, Restricted and Labeled.

    A wiping cloth shall be available to wipe spills. Two types: clean and dry for wiping food spills on tables and chairs; moist cloths should be used for everything else.
    1. Cloths used for wiping food spills on tablesware, such as plates and blows being served to the cusumer, shall be clean, dry and used for no other purpose.
    2. Paper towels and spray bottle of approved sanitizer are acceptable.
    3. Sponges may be used for single use then discarded.
    4. Cloths shall be stored in a labeled container.
    5. Cloths to be stored in the sanitizing solution between uses.
    6. Cloths shall be clean and rinsed in the sanitizing solution, and used for no other purpose.
    7. Wiping cloth solutions shall be changed whenever they look contaminated and dirty, the concentration of sanitizer drops, or at a minimum of every 2-3 hours.
    8. Sanitizer must be mixed to the proper concentration. Test strips must show sanitizer is present.
    9. Proper solution concentrations are: Iodine 25 ppm.
    10. Chlorine 50- 100 ppm, Chlorine 100 ppm for unmovable objects.
    11. Quat 200 ppm.
    12. All Necessary Toxic Items must be Properly Stored, Labeled, and Used.

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    Food Safety - Equipment & Utensils.

    Single Service Articles: Properly Stored, Dispensed and Used.

    Articles designed for one-time, one-person use and then discarded.
    1. Utensils shall be stored and dispensed with the handle side up or in the same direction.
    2. Single service articles (e.g. pots and pans on open shelves) must be inverted food side down during storage.
    3. Articles shall be stored 6 inches off the floor and covered; protected from contamination.
    4. Toothpicks and straws must be individually wrapped or in a dispenser for customer self-service. If handled only by food service employees, they may be bulk packaged.
    5. Utensils shall be stored in a manner to protect them from contamination.
    6. Glasses and cups shall be stored inverted.
    7. Holders for knives, forks, and spoons shall be designed to present the handle to the employee or customer.
    8. All self-service locations, shall protect the articles form contamination and present the handle of the utensil to the sonsumer.

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    Food Safety - Equipment & Utensils

    In Use, Food Dispensing Utensils Properly Stored.

    Dispensing utensils shall be stored in such a way to prevent contamination.
    1. Dishes and disposables are opened or placed upside down (inverted) to air dry or shall be stored in a self-draining position.
    2. Utensils must have handles for dispensing.
    3. Place all utensils handle up or in the food.
    4. Dispensing utensils shall be kept in food with handles sticking up, other approved storage, or a new utensil used each serving.
    5. Ice scoops shall be stored in the ice with the handle out of the ice, or on a clean food contact surface. Do not lay the scoop in the food or ice.
    6. Clean plates shall be used on return to buffet (National Law, Signs must be posted).
    7. Knives used on the same product shall be sanitized with sanitizer wiping cloth or may be stored in sanitizer solution between uses.
    8. Dipper wells shall have running water.

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    Food Safety - Equipment & Utensils

    Cross Contamination - Equipment.

    Food contaminated directly or indirectly from other food. Food shall be prepared, handled, cooked and stored using procedures that prevent cross contamination.
    1. Seperate cutting boards and knives to be used for raw and cooked foods.
    2. Utensils shall be cleaned and sanitized between uses.
    3. Cutting boards shall be cleaned and sanitized between uses.
    4. Raw food boxes may not be re-used for food storage.
    5. Raw products shall be stored in such a way as to prevent dripping onto other foods.
    6. All raw meat must be stored below cooked or ready to eat foods.
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